© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. l-DOPA is the main pharmacological therapy for Parkinson’s disease. However, long-term exposure to l-DOPA induces involuntary movements termed dyskinesia. Clinical trials show that dyskinesia is attenuated by metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) antagonists. Further, the onset of dyskinesia is delayed by nicotine and mGluR5 expression is lower in smokers than in non-smokers. However, the mechanisms by which mGluR5 modulates dyskinesia and how mGluR5 and nicotine interact have not been established. To address these issues, we studied the role of mGluR5 in D1R-containing neurons in dyskinesia and examined whether nicotine reduces dyskinesia via mGluR5. In the aphakia mouse model of Parkinson’s disease, we selectively knocked down mGluR5 in D1R-containing neurons (aphakia-mGluR5KD-D1). We found that genetic downregulation of mGluR5 decreased dyskinesia in aphakia mice. Although chronic nicotine increased the therapeutic effect of l-DOPA in both aphakia and aphakia-mGluR5KD-D1mice, it caused a robust reduction in dyskinesia only in aphakia, and not in aphakia-mGluR5KD-D1mice. Downregulating mGluR5 or nicotine treatment after l-DOPA decreased ERK and histone 3 activation, and FosB expression. Combining nicotine and mGluR5 knockdown did not have an added antidyskinetic effect, indicating that the effect of nicotine might be mediated by downregulation of mGluR5 expression. Treatment of aphakia-mGluR5KD-D1mice with a negative allosteric modulator did not further modify dyskinesia, suggesting that mGluR5 in non-D1R-containing neurons does not play a role in its development. In conclusion, this work suggests that mGluR5 antagonists reduce dyskinesia by mainly affecting D1R-containing neurons and that the effect of nicotine on dyskinetic signs in aphakia mice is likely via mGluR5.
Última actualización: 19/10/2018