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Nava Lara, Rodrigo A; Aguilera-Mendoza, Longendri; Brizuela, Carlos A; Pena, Antonio; Del Rio, Gabriel (2019)

HETEROLOGOUS MACHINE LEARNING FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN HUMAN-TARGETED DRUGS

Molecules 24(7):
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The emergence of microbes resistant to common antibiotics represent a current treat to human health. It has been recently recognized that non-antibiotic labeled drugs may promote antibiotic-resistance mechanisms in the human microbiome by presenting a secondary antibiotic activity; hence, the development of computer-assisted procedures to identify antibiotic activity in human-targeted compounds may assist in preventing the emergence of resistant microbes. In this regard, it is worth noting that while most antibiotics used to treat human infectious diseases are non-peptidic compounds, most known antimicrobials nowadays are peptides, therefore all computer-based models aimed to predict antimicrobials either use small datasets of non-peptidic compounds rendering predictions with poor reliability or they predict antimicrobial peptides that are not currently used in humans. Here we report a machine-learning-based approach trained to identify gut antimicrobial compounds; a unique aspect of our model is the use of heterologous training sets, in which peptide and non-peptide antimicrobial compounds were used to increase the size of the training data set. Our results show that combining peptide and non-peptide antimicrobial compounds rendered the best classification of gut antimicrobial compounds. Furthermore, this classification model was tested on the latest human-approved drugs expecting to identify antibiotics with broad-spectrum activity and our results show that the model rendered predictions consistent with current knowledge about broad-spectrum antibiotics. Therefore, heterologous machine learning rendered an efficient computational approach to classify antimicrobial compounds.