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Osorio-Gomez, Daniel; Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico (2017)

MEMORY TRACE REACTIVATION AND BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE DURING RETRIEVAL ARE DIFFERENTIALLY MODULATED BY AMYGDALAR GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS ACTIVITY: INTERACTION BETWEEN AMYGDALA AND INSULAR CORTEX

Learn. Mem. 24(1):14-23
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The insular cortex (IC) is required for conditioned taste aversion (CTA) retrieval. However, it remains unknown which cortical neurotransmitters levels are modified upon CTA retrieval. Using in vivo microdialysis, we observed that there were clear elevations in extracellular glutamate, norepinephrine, and dopamine in and around the center of the gustatory zone of the IC during CTA retrieval. Additionally, it has been reported that the amygdala-IC interaction is highly involved in CTA memory establishment. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of infusions of an AMPA receptor antagonist (CNQX) and a NMDA receptor antagonist (APV) into the amygdala on CTA retrieval and IC neurotransmitter levels. Infusion of APV into the amygdala impaired glutamate augmentation within the IC, whereas dopamine and norepinephrine levels augmentation persisted and a reliable CTA expression was observed. Conversely, CNQX infusion into the amygdala impaired the aversion response, as well as norepinephrine and dopamine augmentations in the IC. Interestingly, CNQX infusion did not affect glutamate elevation in the IC. To evaluate the functional meaning of neurotransmitters elevations within the IC on CTA response, we infused specific antagonists for the AMPA, NMDA, D1, and β-adrenergic receptor before retrieval. Results showed that activation of AMPA, D1, and β-adrenergic receptors is necessary for CTA expression, whereas NMDA receptors are not involved in the aversion response.