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Mendoza-Martínez A; Lara-Rojas F; Sánchez O; Aguirre J (2017)

NAPA MEDIATES A REDOX REGULATION OF THE ANTIOXIDANT RESPONSE, CARBON UTILIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN ASPERGILLUS NIDULANS

Frontiers in Microbiology 8(MAR):
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© 2017 Mendoza-Martínez, Lara-Rojas, Sánchez and Aguirre. The redox-regulated transcription factors (TFs) of the bZIP AP1 family, such as yeast Yap1 and fission yeast Pap1, are activated by peroxiredoxin proteins (Prxs) to regulate the antioxidant response. Previously, Aspergillus nidulans mutants lacking the Yap1 ortholog NapA have been characterized as sensitive to H 2 O 2 and menadione. Here we study NapA roles in relation to TFs SrrA and AtfA, also involved in oxidant detoxification, showing that these TFs play different roles in oxidative stress resistance, catalase gene regulation and development, during A. nidulans life cycle. We also uncover novel NapA roles in repression of sexual development, normal conidiation, conidial mRNA accumulation, and carbon utilization. The phenotypic characterization of ΔgpxA, ΔtpxA, and ΔtpxB single, double and triple peroxiredoxin mutants in wild type or ΔnapA backgrounds shows that none of these Prxs is required for NapA function in H 2 O 2 and menadione resistance. However, these Prxs participate in a minor NapA-independent H 2 O 2 resistance pathway and NapA and TpxA appear to regulate conidiation along the same route. Using transcriptomic analysis we show that during conidial development NapA-dependent gene expression pattern is different from canonical oxidative stress patterns. In the course of conidiation, NapA is required for regulation of at least 214 genes, including ethanol utilization genes alcR, alcA and aldA, and large sets of genes encoding proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, drug detoxification, carbohydrate utilization and secondary metabolism, comprising multiple oxidoreductases, membrane transporters and hydrolases. In agreement with this, ΔnapA mutants fail to grow or grow very poorly in ethanol, arabinose or fructose as sole carbon sources. Moreover, we show that NapA nuclear localization is induced not only by oxidative stress but also by growth in ethanol and by carbon starvation. Together with our previous work, these results show that SakA-AtfA, SrrA and NapA oxidative stress-sensing pathways regulate essential aspects of spore physiology (i.e., cell cycle arrest, dormancy, drug production and detoxification, and carbohydrate utilization).