The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is a plastic structure where adult neurogenesis constitutively occurs. Cell components of the neurogenic niche are source of paracrine as well as membrane-bound factors such as Notch, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Wnts, Sonic Hedgehog, cytokines, and growth factors that regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cell fate decision. The integration and coordinated action of multiple extrinsic and intrinsic cues drive a continuous decision process: if adult neural stem cells remain quiescent or proliferate, if they take a neuronal or a glial lineage, and if new cells proliferate, undergo apoptotic death, or survive. The proper balance in the molecular milieu of this neurogenic niche leads to the production of neurons in a higher rate as that of astrocytes. But this rate changes in face of microenvironment modifications as those driven by physical exercise or with neuroinflammation. In this work, we first review the cellular and molecular components of the subgranular zone, focusing on the molecules, active signaling pathways and genetic programs that maintain quiescence, induce proliferation, or promote differentiation. We then summarize the evidence regarding the role of neuroinflammation and physical exercise in the modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis with emphasis on the activation of progression from adult neural stem cells to lineage-committed progenitors to their progeny mainly in murine models.
Última actualización: 18/01/2019