Spatiotemporal regulation of cAMP within the cell is required to achieve receptor-specific responses. The mechanism through which the cell selects a specific response to newly synthesized cAMP is not fully understood. In hepatocyte plasma membranes, we identified two functional and independent cAMP-responsive signaling protein macrocomplexes that produce, use, degrade, and regulate their own nondiffusible (sequestered) cAMP pool to achieve their specific responses. Each complex responds to the stimulation of an adenosine G protein-coupled receptor (Ado-GPCR), bound to either A2A or A2B , but not simultaneously to both. Each isoprotein involved in each signaling cascade was identified by measuring changes in cAMP levels after receptor activation, and its participation was confirmed by antibody-mediated inactivation. A2A -Ado-GPCR selective stimulation activates adenylyl cyclase 6 (AC6), which is bound to AKAP79/150, to synthesize cAMP which is used by two other AKAP79/150-tethered proteins: protein kinase A (PKA) and phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A). In contrast, A2B -Ado-GPCR stimulation activates D-AKAP2-attached AC5 to generate cAMP, which is channeled to two other D-AKAP2-tethered proteins: guanine-nucleotide exchange factor 2 (Epac2) and PDE3B. In both cases, prior activation of PKA or Epac2 with selective cAMP analogs prevents de novo cAMP synthesis. In addition, we show that cAMP does not diffuse between these protein macrocomplexes or 'signalosomes'. Evidence of coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization of some proteins belonging to each signalosome is presented. Each signalosome constitutes a minimal functional signaling unit with its own machinery to synthesize and regulate a sequestered cAMP pool. Thus, each signalosome is devoted to ensure the transmission of a unique and unequivocal message through the cell.
Última actualización: 29/03/2017