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Tecalco-Cruz A; Ramírez-Jarquín J (2018)

POLYUBIQUITINATION INHIBITION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND ITS IMPLICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

World Journal of Clinical Oncology 9(4):60-70
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© the author(s) 2018. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All Rights Reserved. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is detected in more than 70% of the cases of breast cancer. Nuclear activity of ERα, a transcriptional regulator, is linked to the development of mammary tumors, whereas the extranuclear activity of ERα is related to endocrine therapy resistance. ERα polyubiquitination is induced by the estradiol hormone, and also by selective estrogen receptor degraders, resulting in ERα degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system. Moreover, polyubiquitination is related to the ERα transcription cycle, and some E3-ubiquitin ligases also function as coactivators for ERα. Several studies have demonstrated that ERα polyubiquitination is inhibited by multiple mechanisms that include posttranslational modifcations, interactions with coregulators, and formation of specific protein complexes with ERα. These events are responsible for an increase in ERα protein levels and deregulation of its signaling in breast cancers. Thus, ERα polyubiquitination inhibition may be a key factor in the progression of breast cancer and resistance to endocrine therapy.