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Dominguez-Martin, Eunice; Hernandez-Elvira, Mariana; Vincent, Olivier; Coria, Roberto; Escalante, Ricardo (2018)

UNFOLDING THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM OF A SOCIAL AMOEBA: DICTYOSTELIUM DISCOIDEUM AS A NEW MODEL FOR THE STUDY OF ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM STRESS

Cells 7(6):
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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a membranous network with an intricate dynamic architecture necessary for various essential cellular processes. Nearly one third of the proteins trafficking through the secretory pathway are folded and matured in the ER. Additionally, it acts as calcium storage, and it is a main source for lipid biosynthesis. The ER is highly connected with other organelles through regions of membrane apposition that allow organelle remodeling, as well as lipid and calcium traffic. Cells are under constant changes due to metabolic requirements and environmental conditions that challenge the ER network’s maintenance. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a signaling pathway that restores homeostasis of this intracellular compartment upon ER stress conditions by reducing the load of proteins, and by increasing the processes of protein folding and degradation. Significant progress on the study of the mechanisms that restore ER homeostasis was achieved using model organisms such as yeast, , and mammalian cells. In this review, we address the current knowledge on ER architecture and ER stress response in . This social amoeba alternates between unicellular and multicellular phases and is recognized as a valuable biomedical model organism and an alternative to yeast, particularly for the presence of traits conserved in animal cells that were lost in fungi.