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Díaz-Muñoz M; Hernández-Muñoz R; Butanda-Ochoa A (2022)

STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY FEATURES OF PURINES AND THEIR RECEPTORS: IMPLICATIONS IN CELL PHYSIOPATHOLOGY.

Mol Biomed 3(1):5
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The purine molecular structure consists of fused pyrimidine and imidazole rings. Purines are main pieces that conform the structure of nucleic acids which rule the inheritance processes. Purines also work as metabolic intermediates in different cell functions and as messengers in the signaling pathways throughout cellular communication. Purines, mainly ATP and adenosine (ADO), perform their functional and pharmacological properties because of their structural/chemical characteristics that make them either targets of mutagenesis, mother frameworks for designing molecules with controlled effects (e.g. anti-cancer), or chemical donors (e.g., of methyl groups, which represent a potential chemoprotective action against cancer). Purines functions also come from their effect on specific receptors, channel-linked and G-protein coupled for ATP, and exclusively G-coupled receptors for ADO (also known as ADORAs), which are involved in cell signaling pathways, there, purines work as chemical messengers with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine actions that regulate cell metabolism and immune response in tumor progression which depends on the receptor types involved in these signals. Purines also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and participate in the cell energy homeostasis. Therefore, purine physiology is important for a variety of functions relevant to cellular health; thus, when these molecules present a homeostatic imbalance, the stability and survival of the cellular systems become compromised.