GPR55 is a class A orphan G protein-coupled receptor that has drawn important therapeutic attention in the last decade because of its role in pathophysiological processes including vascular functions, metabolic dysfunction, neurodegenerative disorders, or bone turnover among others. Several cannabinoids of phytogenic, endogenous, and synthetic nature have shown to modulate this receptor leading to propose it as a member of the endocannabinoid system. The putative endogenous GPR55 ligand is L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and it has been associated with several processes that control cell survival and tumor progression. The relevance of GPR55 in cancer is currently being extensively studied in vitro and in vivo using diverse cancer models. The LPI/GPR55 axis has been reported to participate in pro-oncogenic processes including cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, invasion, and metastasis being altered in several cancer cells via G12/13 and Gq signaling. Moreover, GRP55 and its bioactive lipid have been proposed as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. Indeed, GPR55 overexpression or high expression has been shown to correlate with cancer aggressiveness in specific tumors including acute myeloid leukemia, uveal melanoma, low grade glioma and renal cancer. This review aims to analyze and summarize current evidence on the cancerogenic role of the LPI/GPR55 axis providing a critical view of the therapeutic prospects of this promising target.
Última actualización: 19/08/2022